South America. The Anostomidae is the second most diverse family in Characiformes, with approximately 150 valid species. Whereas most genera are composed of relatively few valid species - less than six; Leporinus comprises approximately half of the entire family diversity, with 80 or so valid species. Because Leporinus is a nonmonophyletic group, recent attempts have been made to distinguish monophyletic species groups that could be recognized as distinct genera. Hypomasticus was resurrected to include eight species previously allocated in Leporinus, similarly, Megaleporinus was described to include nine species previously recognized in Leporinus and one in Hypomasticus.

Paraphrased from: "A new endangered species of Megaleporinus (Characiformes: Anostomidae) from the Rio de Contas basin, eastern Brazil" by Josť L. O. Birindelli, Heraldo A. Britski and Jorge L. Ramirez

Superfamilies in the Order : Characiformes.